Black History – Interesting Facts - Mathematics The Ancient Egyptian value of π (the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter) was 3.16 – the closest value from the ancient world to the correct value (3.14159...) The Ancient Egyptians used mathematics to measure out land and to build grand structures such as the pyramids. They used trigonometry to measure land. The Abacus was in use in Ancient Egypt as early as 460 BCE.